Recreating the Elements of an Arts & Crafts Kitchen

Over a 40-year period, the Arts & Crafts kit­chen evolved far beyond its spare, utilitarian, beginnings in the Victorian Age. By the end of the era, it had become an efficient meal preparation and cleanup center with cold and dry storage, distinct preparation areas, running water, electricity, and even sanitary waste disposal. General Electric had already invented and was selling the kit­chen sink disposer that was later to become a market leader as the "Dispos-all". Still not quite the modern kit­chen of today but very close.

Arts & Crafts Kitchens in Period Advertising

Kitchen Remodeling in Lincoln, Nebraska: Arts & Crafts Kitchen in Advertising

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Kitchens that appear in period advertising are usually more inspirational than actual but advertising does give us a good idea of what American homeowners of the time thought were ideal kitchens.

These illustrations run the gamut from primitive early Arts & Crafts kitchens to streamlined Art Deco styles of late in the period. Note the bright color schemes in contrast to the more somber hues used elsewhere in the house and the near absence of stained wood cabinets. Stained cabinets in kitchens were rare in the Arts & Crafts period which preferred the more hygienic painted finishes.


For many more vintage advertising illustrations and expert information on vintage kitchens and baths, visit Antique Home Style.

The modern Arts & Crafts kit­chen, however, is only a distant relative of the kit­chens of the Arts & Crafts period. In fact, the contemporary kit­chen is more accurately a modern kit­chen in the Arts & Crafts style.

What kit­chen designers have done is take the design elements of the Arts & Crafts house and combine them with modern kit­chen features to produce a hybrid that looks and feels like it could have been at home in an Arts & Crafts house if dishwashers, micro­waves, and modern engineered materials had been available in the first half of the 20th century.
The often generous footprint of the Arts & Crafts kit­chen makes it easier to modernize the kit­chen without adding on. Arts & Crafts kitchens were usually fairly large because as well as cooking and washing up, they were often the place where laundry was done. The sink and washboard gave way to the wringer washer once electricity was available, and the laundry was often moved to a porch or the basement.

Wall Treat­ments

In the early 1900s, hygiene and sanitation were already key elements of kit­chen design, inherited from kitchens of the prior, Victorian era in which hygiene had long been a major, if not overwhelming, design theme. Above all else, any kit­chen feature needed to be easily cleaned and unlikely to harbor germs.

Ceramic tile was a favored material. A tile wainscot was a common feature — often extending up the wall to as high as 56" and even all the way to the ceiling. Tile was hygienic and easy to keep clean.

The walls above the tile were painted in durable, washable enamel paint. Wall­paper in kitch­ens was not sanitary, and, therefore, less often used.

For more decoration, stencils were used to paint designs on the walls. Stencils are still available from suppliers such as De­signer Stencils. THey are easy to apply (with a little practice), and can be a fun weekend project for the whole family.

Wall­paper, too, is once again a practical option. It has improved since the early 20th century and, treated with a coating, it is washable and completely suitable for kitchens.

Unlike the rest of the house, usually painted in somber earth tones, the most common colors for both tile and paint in kitchens were bright, lively colors. Illustrations from the period (See Arts & Crafts Kitchens in Period Advertising above.) show that many of the colors that we commonly associate with post-war modernism were already well established in the Arts & Crafts kit­chen palette: aqua, turquoise, peach, lemon yellow and nearly every shade of pink were used with cheerful abandon.

Colors were frequently banded. One color to about midway up the windows, another color up to the top of the window, and a third color in the frieze above the window. Often the color bands were separated by horizontal moldings. Where a tile wainscot was used, the tile was often bordered in a contrasting color. peach and apple green or peach with turquoise were popular combinations as were yellow and bright blue.

The paint of the time was oil based but "ready-mixed" in cans, not the locally made paint of prior years. Traditional paint is composed of a hiding pigment, most often white lead, which gave the paint its opacity, a color pigment that gave the paint its color and a liquid binder. Paint "dries" when most of the liquid evaporates leaving behind the solid parts of the binder mixed with the pigment.

The traditional binder was boiled linseed oil, which was first produced commercially in 1856. It was usually mixed with turpentine to make it easier to spread and quicker to dry. Ready-mixed paints did not rely on whatever materials happened to be available locally for pigment but used commercial pigments which not only provided a greater range of color but also more consistency in color from batch to batch.

D.R. Averill of Ohio patented the first ready-mixed paint in a867. Shortly thereafter Harry Sherwin, Alanson Osborn, and Edward Williams formed Sherwin, Williams & Co. in Cleveland Ohio to market prepared paint. By 1875 the company was selling its brand of paint throughout the Midwest. By 1880 there were hundreds of paint companies, most with local or regional markets. Prepared paint did not initially have a very long shelf life, so it could not be shipped very far or stored for very long.

That problem was solved by John Lucas & Co. of Philadelphia. It was the first paint manufacturer to ship ready-mix paints in sealed cans so the paint would not cure before it was sold. The can did not have a removable lid. It was opened with a can opener, and once opened, could not be re-sealed. Any unused paint had to be either thrown away or transferred to an air-tight container.

The first truly national paint manufacturer was probably the Benjamin Moore company, founded in 1883. It's Moresco paint, introduced in 1892, was one of the earliest national commercial successes. Muresco was a dry paint mix to which water was added to make a spreadable coating.

Sherwin-Williams countered with the first screw-top, resealable paint can and in 1880, with a prepared paint in which the pigments stayed suspended in the binder for an extended period of time, reducing the need for stirring. Thus began the rivalry between the two companies that has lasted well over a century.

The Three Faces of Oak


How oak is sawn affects its appearance and price.
 Rift oak is characterized by straight, close-set, parallel grain;
 Quartersawn shows straight grain with perpendicular "flecks" (sometimes called "flakes"). The darker the wood is stained, the more obvious the flecks become.
 Flat- or plain-sawn oak has a coarse arched or "cathedral" grain. It is the most common cut because it produces the most usable wood but it is rarely seen in Arts & Crafts furnishings or cabinets.
Quartersawing wastes more wood and is, therefore, pricier but much more authentic. Rift sawn oak is rare. Few logs are deliberately rift sawn. Rift sawn boards are produced in the process of quartersawing. Rift and quarter boards are often mixed together as "quartersawn" oak, so it pays to look at each board before you buy it.

By today's standards, it was not very good paint. It was not fade-resistant or "colorfast". The sun often bleached walls in part of a room so they were a distinctly different color from un-bleached walls in the rest of the room and readily identifiable when hanging pictures were removed to show the "shadow" of unbleached paint. Nor, for the most part, were they particularly water-resistant, hence the usual practice of a tile wainscot on the bottom half of kitchen walls.

Nonetheless, while not always simple enough for a novice to use, ready-mixed paints did make paint more reliable, and over time, less expensive. The term "ready-mixed" did not mean that the paints were actually ready to use, it meant that all of the ingredients were in the can but they had to be blended by stirring, a process that often took an hour or more. Pigments tended to collect as a nearly impenetrable block of color on the bottom of the can and had to be broken up and evenly distributed throughout the linseed oil binder before the paint could be used. It was also very flammable, and many a house was burned down by paint-soaked rags that spontaneously burst into flame in a fire accelerated by the not-yet-dry paint on its walls and ceilings.

Adjustable Shelves in Arts & Crafts Cabinets


If you think adjustable cabinet shelves are a recent innovation, you'd be wrong. They have been around since cabinets were invented, and without using those tiny, easily-lost metal-peg shelf supports.

The sawtooth shelf support is a method of making shelves adjustable that has been in use for hundreds of years. Notched wood supports at each corner hold adjustable cleats on which the shelves rest. Clever, simple to build, sturdier and more secure than today's shelf peg systems, we use the method frequently in period cabinetry for the touch of history it adds to the cabinets.

To help bathroom and kitchen paints better resist damage from water and grease, some paint­ers applied a coat of wax to the finished wall. The wax made the wall "washable" to a degree and helped the paint last longer by replacing the oils slowly being lost by the linseed binder as it continued to cure, reducing the need to re-paint. Wax was often re-applied yearly during Spring cleaning.

Cabinets

Original Arts & Crafts kitchens were workrooms where cooking and cleaning up was done. They were not "public" rooms that guests entered, so they were very utilitarian.

While the practice today favors stained fine wood kit­chen cabinets, the cabinets of the actual period were usually pine, painted in light, "sanitary" colors. White was by far the most popular — not usually a bright "hospital" white but a slightly "off-white". Variations of white were also used: cream, egg­shell, and ivory were very popular. Pastels were introduced toward the end of the period and continued into the mid century, giving post-war kitchens their iconic look.

The elegant, fine wood cabinets you see in the modern interpretation of the Arts & Crafts kit­chen cabinet did not originate in the kit­chen but in the more public living and dining rooms of the period. Fine hardwood was a feature of built-in living room and dining room furniture and fireplace mantels. However, since kit­chens now have become public rooms, upgraded cabinet wood is an appropriate interpretation.

But, whether painted pine or carefully finished hardwoods, Arts & Crafts cabinet styles are distinctive. The cabinets typically feature a flat 1- or 2-panel door with square, unadorned frame. Edge profiling typical of the Vic­tor­ian era is almost completely absent except in very early kitchens.

Raised panel and flush cabinet doors are inconsistent with the period, as are arched panel doors. Glass-panel doors are, however, appropriate, especially with art or stained glass. Many Prairie-style cabinet doors and drawers were designed by architects and are more elaborate but still rather plain.

(For examples of Arts & Crafts cabinet doors and drawer fronts, see Cabinet Door Styles.)

Generally, each part of the country used wood that was common to its locality. Use of local materials was a key tenet of the Arts & Crafts philosophy.

Oak was the most frequent wood of choice in the Mid­west, usually red oak, either rift-cut or quartersawn. Today, major cabinet manufacturers often use less costly flat sawn oak in their reproduction Crafts­man cabinets to save costs. It is not actually authentic to the period. Cabinetmakers of the Arts & Crafts period would have used rift or quartersawn oak.

Rift or quartersawn elm and chestnut are also authentic choices. Elm and chestnut are still rare due to blight but are making a comeback as a commercial wood. Ash, a ring-porous wiid with dramatic grain patterns, was also popular in the middle of the country.

Cherrywood was not usually found in Arts & Crafts houses in the Midwest but was fairly common in the East. Redwood was used in California where it was abundant, and cypress and close-grain southern pine in Florida and the Southeast.

Some famous architects used more exotic woods. Cuban mahogany, for example, was the material of choice for most Greene & Greene cabinetry and furnishings in California. Unfortunately Cuban mahogany is now commercially extinct, as is its successor, Honduran mahogany, from overcutting. The "mahogany" available today is usually not a true mahogany but a wood with a somewhat similar appearance.

Straight-grain, Douglas Fir was a staple of West Coast cabinetry including Western Canada. It was widely used to build period kit­chen cabinets because it was cheap at the time, not so any longer. But, it makes a beautiful cabinet and is a basic wood in Japanese cabinetmaking. (One of the reasons the wood is not cheap is that most of it is exported to Japan.)

Whatever the wood, it should be well-figured, high-quality wood. The color and grain of the wood were considered all the decoration needed in Arts & Crafts cabinetry. Light-colored woods, such as maple or birch with muted figure, should be used with caution and generally only if painted.

Countertops

Early counter­tops were often linoleum or what was then often called "oilcloth". Linoleum works well as flooring but it doesn't suffer the kind of abuse a countertop gets and has to be replaced frequently. It is not a good choice for today's kit­chen.

Wood Countertops

Wood counter­tops were common, especially where any cutting was done. In one of the most famous of Crafts­man houses, the Ultimate Bungalows designed by Greene & Greene, kitchen counter­tops were usually wood except around sinks and other water sources.

Wood is actually a good countertop material. It was at one time thought to be unhygienic but more recent research has shown that it contains natural chemical defenses against bacteria and other microbes and is less likely to harbor germs than stone and even most engineered materials. But, it does require frequent maintenance to keep its good looks.

Laminate Countertops

High-pressure laminate countertops were invented in the early 20th century by Formica. Laminates were the luxury countertop of the 1920s — a notion that is a little hard to believe now — but true. It was used on the Queen Mary ocean liner as a wall-covering and in high-end Art Deco retail establishments as the very high-end countertop material of the era.

It was expensive — too expensive for most homeowners — but still found its way into some late Arts & Crafts homes, often with wood banding on the edges.

It did not come into its own as a countertop material, however, until after the Arts & Crafts era during the post-war building boom when it was featured in almost all new kitchens. All laminate manufacturers make patterns very suited for Arts & Crafts homes. The best choices are patternless or in patterns that emulate wood or stone.

The trick to laminates that look at home in an Arts & Crafts kit­chen is to reduce the thickness of the countertop to 7/8" 0r 1" rather than today's standard 1-1/2". The current standard thickness did not become the standard until after 1945 when shop-produced laminate tops became common.

The site-fabricated tops of the Arts & Crafts period were likely to be any thickness from 1/2" to 2" but 7/8" seems to have been the most common simply because it was the actual thickness of the 1" nominal lumber at the time.

Zinc Countertops

Zinc was a common countertop treatment during Victorian times and was carried over into the Arts & Crafts era. Zinc counter­tops are still being made,as is Monel®, a nick­el/cop­per alloy invented in 1901 by Ro­bert Crooks Stan­ley and often used in period groceries as a countertop material.

Both materials resist corrosion and are nearly impervious to organic acids (ace­tic and fatty acids) associated with food. Both will change color with use over time but aficionados of the materials believe that the patina associated with age and use contributes to the charm and warmth of the metals.

The disadvantage of zinc and Monel is that both are expensive, and few fabricators are familiar with the material today.

The laminate companies have stepped in to fill the gap. Zinc-look laminates are available at reasonable prices, and while not an exact replica, are close enough to make most people look twice.

Stone Coun­ter­tops

Stone is also a countertop surface suitable for a period kit­chen. It is probably the oldest work surface, dating back to prehistoric times. Soapstone and slate have been quarried for at least 250 years in New England and have been used for both dry and wet sinks since Colonial times.

Soapstone

The look of soapstone is timeless and historically accurate for almost any period of Amer­ican architecture. It is warmer, denser and heavier than granite. It is not, however, nearly as hard. The primary ingredient in soapstone is talc, about the softest mineral around. It can be scratched with a fingernail but rarely are scratches more than superficial and can be removed with an application of mineral oil. More severe scratches disappear with fine sandpaper or even a scouring pad.

Soapstone is extremely durable, nonporous, and unaffected by chemicals or acids like lemon juice or vinegar. In fact, it is so impervious to just about everything that it is used as counter­tops in chemical laboratories.

Slate darkens over time through oxidation and the veining in the material becomes more prominent with age. If you don't want to wait for natural aging, the material can be darkened with oil or special waxes.

Slate

Fine-grained slate from the Northeast United States is dense and nonporous and has been used as a working surface material since early in the nation's history.

Slate sinks were fairly common In the Arts & Crafts period and could be purchased through plumbing catalogs such as those published by HaJoCa since 1858.

Soatstone's many hues and patterns: gray, purple, green, and soft red make it suitable for mant de­cors and tastes. Its one disadvantage is that it tends to chip at its edges, so care must be taken with heavy pans.

Marble

Marble, common as a pantry countertop in the 19th century, is making a comeback despite its relative fragility.

Marble was used more often in bathrooms and butler's pantries than in kitchens. It requires a lot of upkeep and is susceptible to damage by even mild acids like lemon juice and vinegar. it is not recommended for active kitchens. If we use it at all we reserve it for baking stations. A marble surface is ideal for keeping dough from sticking.

Almost all engineered stone manufacturers offer a false marble that is indistinguishable from the real thing, and is the better choice For a marble look without the marble maintenance.

Ceramic Tile Countertops

Ceramic tile was common for floors in the Arts & Crafts period and was used with good effect as a countertop material, mostly in upscale kitchens. As a countertop material, it is very very hygienic, which was important to homemakers of the period. Glazed ceramic tile is impervious to stains, very heat-resistant and extremely durable. You can set the hottest pan directly on the surface without harm.

The earlier drawback to tile on counter­tops was the old cement grout. It stained, cracked and even dislodged with use. Today, however, there are better grout options. The new urethane grouts look like a standard grout but do not stain and remain somewhat flexible so they do not crack or dislodge.

With these new care-free urethane grouts, tile is among the most maintenance-free countertop materials — requiring much less attention than any natural stone, and less expensive — often much less expensive — than other high-end countertop options. It is also the material that permits the most creativity. There are thousands of patterns and colors of ceramic tile, so mix, match and experiment until you get a look you love.

Enamel-on-Steel Surfaces

In the early Arts & Crafts period tables were the preferred work surface, a holdover from Vic­tor­ian kitchens. Even after fitted cabinets became more common and raised counter­tops suitable for standing work more ubiquitous, tables remained in most kitchens as work and dining surfaces.

These often would have been fitted with an enamel-on-steel working surface manufactured by companies such as Kuehne Kraft and Vitreous Steel Products Co. The working surfaces of Hoosier cabinets were also often enamel-on-steel.

The process of enameling steel was similar to that used to give cast iron tubs their vitreous enamel finish. Finely ground glass powder was sprinkled on a steel tabletop that had been heated to 1,700°. The glass melted and adhered to the steel at the molecular level.

The surface was very sanitary and reasonably dur­able except that it tends to chip at the corners. Pristine examples (without chips) are difficult to find, and auction prices are numbing for exceptional pieces.

Unfortunately, as for as we can tell, enamel-on-steel tabletops are not available today. (But, if you know of a source, please contact us or leave a comment below.) They fell out of favor in the 1940s and '50s, replaced by Formica-topped tables which were much less prone to damage and still easy to clean.

For a more complete list of kit­chen counter­top materials and the advantages and disadvantages of each, see New & Traditional Countertop Choices.

Flooring

The hygiene movement encouraged homeowners to use sanitary surfaces in their homes. Flooring was of particular focus. Christine Frederick, a pioneer home economist of the Arts & Crafts period summed up flooring choices for the "modern" kit­chen this way…

"The floor covering of a kit­chen should allow complete and easy washing, the surface should not be covered with any porous material which will absorb or stain with grease. Linoleum, tile and a new cork material very restful to the feet are the best coverings; wood is too porous and turns dark and ugly with washing…"
Christine Frederic, The New House Keeping New York, Doubleday, Page & Co., 1913

Many contemporary flooring materials are not appropriate for Arts & Crafts kitchens but most natural and traditional materials work well.

Wood Flooring

In the immediate post-Vic­tor­ian period, wood floors were common in kitchens, sometimes shellacked and waxed, sometimes not. Shellac — which is dissolved by alcohol and turns white when wet — was not a very satisfactory finish but it was what was available. The shellac protected the floor and wax protected the shellac. The wax had to be renewed frequently.

Recommended Equipment and Labor-Saving Appliances for a Well-Equipped Kitchen, Circa 1919
Agate Ware
• Double boiler
• Colander
• Funnel
• Ladle
• Pie plate, deep
• Pie plate, shallow
• Quart measure
• Sauce Pans
 1 quart
 2 quart
 4 quart
 6 quart
 8 quart
• Skimmer
• Spoon, large
Aluminum Ware
• Percolator
• Tea Kettle
Brushes
• Bottlebrush
• Dust brush
• Pastry brush
• Refrigerator brush
• Scrub brush
• Silver brush
• Sink brush
• Vegetable brush
Earthenware
• Butter crock
• Casserole
• Custard cups
• Mixing bowls
• Tea pot
• Steamer
Enamel Ware
• Bowls, small
• Dipper
• Dishpan
• Pitcher
• Platter
• Refrigerator dishes
• Soap dish
Glassware
• Baking dish
• Butter dish
• Fruit jars
• Lemon squeezer
• Measuring cup
Silverware (Nickel)
• 2 forks
• 3 tablespoons
• 4 teaspoons
• 1 half teaspoon
Iron Ware
• Dripping pan
• Frying pan
• Garbage can (galvanized)
• Griddle
• Kettle for deep fat frying
• Roasting pan
• Soup pot
Linens & Cloths
• Chamois skin
• Cheesecloth
• Dish towels
• Dusters
• Floor cloths
• Glass towels2
• Hand Towels
• Holders, soft
• Oven cloths
Wire Ware
• Frying basket
• Broiler grid
• Dish drainer
• Potato masher
• Puree sieve
• Soap shaker
• Toaster
• Coffee strainer
• Eggbeater
Japan Ware1
• Breadbox
• Cake box
• Dustpan
• Flour bin
• Sugar box
• Breakfast tray
Steel
• Bread knife
• Can opener
• Corkscrew
• Hammer
• Ice pick
• Knife sharpener
• Meat skewers
• Metal mesh pot cleaner
• Nutcracker
• Paring knife
• Scissors
• Spatula
Appliances
• Mixer
• Fireless cooker3
• Meat grinder
• Egg beater
• Coffee mill
• Scales
Wood Ware
• Bread board
• Chopping bowl
• Dough board
• Ice cream freezer
• knife board
• Towel rack
• Rolling pin
• Salt box
• Spoon
• Step chair
• Table
Tin Ware
• Angel cake tin
• Apple corer
• Biscuit, cookie & doughnut cutters
• Breadpans
• Cake pans
• Flour sifter
• Grater
• Measuring cup (1 cup)
• Measuring cup (2 cups)
• Muffin tins
• Pastry sheet
1 Also: Lacquer ware. A hard, multi-layer coat of lacquer applied to wood containers. Valued for durability and ease of cleaning. Today's substitute would be plastic.
2 Waffle weave cloth towels though to be especially effective at removing water from glassware.
3 An insulated container capable of maintaining a temperature at which food can continue cooking after removal from the stove or oven. Very popular in the early 1900s to save labor and fuel. Rather like today's crock pots.

By the 1920s paint companies had begun offering floor varnishes and paints that were more durable. Paints in such hues as orange, brown, gray and maroon were often used to brighten a kit­chen and disguise or minimize earlier damage to the kit­chen floor.

The sanitation movement, at its height during the Arts & Crafts period, virtually dictated that that kit­chen floors be kept hygienic — which meant weekly cleaning and monthly waxing in many homes — a labor-intensive process when waxes had to be polished by hand. There were no low maintenance floors during the Arts & Crafts period.

Yearly re-painting or re-varnishing as part of general Spring Cleaning was encouraged by paint companies — although it was very inconvenient since it usually took more than a week for the paint or varnish to dry and the odor of the high VOC paint and varnish of the time could be suffocating.

Painted floors are usually not durable enough for the rough and tumble of a modern kit­chen, although we have done some. Fortunately, modern paints are last longer than those available during the Arts & Craft period, so yearly repainting is no longer required. Painting is appropriate where the original flooring is in good shape but stained and discolored to the extent that the wood cannot be restored — pretty much the same reason homeowners painted kit­chen floors in the first place. Figure on repainting every three to five years — more often in high traffic areas. Fortunately, today's floor paint dries overnight, and low VOC formulations have virtually eliminated odor.

Hardwood is a good choice for today's kit­chen since modern finishes give excellent protection against wear and water damage. It was rarely used in the Arts & Crafts period because pine was abundant and hardwood expensive for what was then considered a utility room. If used, it was almost always narrow strip wood. Wide plank flooring was unusual, although frequently seen in reproduced Arts & Crafts kitchens. The large first-growth trees necessary to produce wide-plank flooring were already disappearing from American forests making wide planks expensive and hard to come by. The floor was rarely stained, although it might be fumed to a very dark, almost black, color. Most of the dark staining we see in old pre-war floors, however, is the result of embedded dirt and darkened varnish. The wood was typically oak but also elm, chestnut or maple. Maple was particularly popular for kitchens since its closed pore structure prevented stains from penetrating.

The economy flooring in the Midwest was often red oak in 1-1/2" strips just 3/8" thick. We have always been impressed with how well this material has held up over nearly a century. Dimensioned flooring in this size is still available from our local woodcutters and commercially from Canada.

One of the more interesting discoveries we have made over the years is that there is sometimes a wood strip floor under the many layers of linoleum and vinyl in an Arts & Crafts kit­chen. We think it is an accident of history. Most of the period houses built around 1927 seem to have had oak kit­chen floors, which were almost immediately covered in linoleum — the "miracle" material of the day. What the covering has done is keep the oak in pristine condition, without the wear common to other parts of the house. A few hours of work removing the asphalt tile adhesive and some sanding and refinishing results in a floor that looks brand new, even though it is actually nearly 100 years old.

Stone & Ceramic Tile

Stone tile and ceramic tile are good choices for an Arts & Crafts kit­chen. Stone fits the Arts & Crafts preference for natural materials. White and brightly color floor tile that was frequently used in post-war modern kitchens was less frequently used in Arts & Crafts kitchens, more in bathrooms. But, it was used and its use became more common toward the end of the era when what we think of as Post-War modern kitchens were already being featured in period magazines in bright and pastel colors.

Stone tile includes marble, slate, and limestone. Slate and limestone were most popular. Marble was less commonly used in kitchens (but often a feature of upscale baths). Marble and limestone are vulnerable to scratching, cracking, and other wear. Granite, the hardest stone used today, ware rare in the Arts & Crafts period since it was difficult to work with the tools available at the time. Some stones commonly used for counter­tops, such as soapstone, are too soft for use on a floor.

For a complete guide to choosing the right ceramic tile for your kitchen floor, see Porcelain vs. Ceramic Tile: Is There a difference?

The disadvantage of natural stone and unglazed tile is that they need a surprising amount of regular maintenance. Stone and unglazed tile need to be kept clean and dry, and it needs to be resealed regularly. Manufacturers usually recommend that it be resealed annually but it may be necessary more often in high-traffic areas — as often as every three months in a busy kit­chen. So, our first choice for a stone look is usually low-maintenance glazed tile made to look like stone, especially the slates and limestone.

True Linoleum

True linoleum is also an authentic and excellent choice for kit­chen flooring. Genuine linoleum was the original sheet flooring material, first patented by Englishman Frederick Walton in 1863.

Although some people still call all sheet flooring "linoleum," the real thing is quite different from petroleum-based sheet vinyl floors that are the modern replacement for linoleum.

Its name derives from its main ingredient, linseed oil. (In Latin, linum is the word for linseed and oleum means oil.) The oil is boiled, mixed with melted resins, and com­bined with powdered cork, wood flour, ground limestone, and other natural materials. Mineral pigments provide the color.

This mixture is formed into a durable sheet by applying heat and pressure. Through most of the Arts & Crafts period, linoleum would have been the first choice for an upscale "modern" kit­chen. Vinyl sheet flooring can simulate linoleum but it is difficult to reproduce the original linoleum texture and finish in vinyl, so substitutes are not always entirely convincing.

The disadvantage of true linoleum is that it is a high-maintenance material. Dirt and grit are a linoleum floor's biggest enemy. They will scratch and dull the finish, allowing grime to collect. Place doormats outside and rugs inside entrances. Do not use rubber-backed throw rugs, they will stain the linoleum.

Linoleum manufacturers recommend frequent damp mopping and an periodic polishing to keeps the material's like-new appearance. Use a polish specifically formulated for linoleum. Most manufacturers have specific polish recommendation.

The Arts & Crafts Society offers a slideshow of linoleum patterns common in the 1930s. While most of these are no longer made, the show gives you a good idea of what your great-grandmother thought was trendy and modern. Today's linoleum usually has much less dramatic patterns and more neutral colors.

Cork

Many people believe cork to be a relatively fragile material and are surprised to see cork listed as one of the original Art & Crafts flooring materials. In fact, cork used in flooring is very robust and has a long history as a resilient flooring going back to the early Vic­tor­ian period.

It reached its zenith in 1927 when 2.9 million square feet of cork floors were sold. It is very durable. The cork floor in the lobby of the Department of Commerce building in Washington, D.C., installed in 1930, is still in use today, as is the cork floor specified by Frank Lloyd Wright for his "Fallingwater" house in Pennsylvania in 1935.

Cork was not only the first but is in many ways the best resilient flooring for a kit­chen. Due to its unique cellular structure (about 2.4 million air-filled cells per cubic inch), cork is a very resilient floor. It has a little "give" and feels soft to the foot. Yet it is extremely tough and durable. Modern finishes give cork a high level of protection from dirt and chemicals, and cork is naturally waterproof. Its cellular structure prevents it from absorbing water, which is why it was the original material for fishing bobbers and life vests. With proper care, cork floors last 100+ years, and if damaged, can be easily repaired, although most cork aficionados don't bother — a little scratch or gouge just adds to the patina.

Cork is also the "greenest" flooring available. It is completely sustainable and renewable. Cork is the bark of the Cork Oak tree. The tree, grown predominately in Southern Europe and North Africa, has a lifespan ranging from 150-200 years.

The bark is harvested using methods that have remained virtually unchanged since the uses of cork were first discovered. Once the tree has reached maturity (typically 25 years), the first harvest of is removed from the tree. The process is repeated at intervals of nine years (the minimum interval required by law), at no time affecting the health of the tree. During each harvest, no more than 50% of the bark is removed, allowing the tree to protect itself using its natural defenses.

To produce cork flooring, waste cork bark leftover from making wine corks is ground into small granules. The granules are baked under pressure in molds at varying temperatures producing shade variations in the finished tile product. A dye may also be applied but most of the color you see in cork is just the result of baking.

The cork slab is then cut into tiles, smoothed and finished with several applications of polyurethane or some other durable coating. The coating adds to the natural resistance of the cork to dirt and stains. Damp mopping with a mild detergent is all that is required to maintain a cork floor. Cork does not stain easily nor require cleaning with harsh chemicals.

For a complete account of flooring suitable for kitchens and baths with ratings, see Flooring Options for Kit­chens & Baths.

Lighting

Most Arts & Crafts kitchens were inadequately lit. A few ceiling fixtures were though to be adequate. They aren't. A kitchen needs two types of lighting, ambient or overall illumination and task lighting that throws even, shadowless light on work surfaces. Arts & Crafts kitchens may have hade adequate embient light but no though was given to task lighting until the 1960s when undercabinet task lighting was introduced.

We are not getting into the details of adequate kitchen lighting here. The subject is covered in a separate article, Efficient & Effective Kitchen Lighting. If you are interested in the nuts and bolts of good lighting, it's the place to start. You will learn more than you ever wanted to know about lighting. Here we are going to look at the just the types of fixtures suitable in Arts & Crafts kitchens for both overall lighting and task illumination.

A hugh number of sellers offer ceiling lights suitable for Arts & Crafts kitchens at every price point from the hand-made lamps sold by Arroyo Crafts­man to discount lighting sold by the big box stores like Home Depot and Lowes. Top-line vendors like Rejuvenation offer the greatest variety and choice and is our go-to source for most reproduction lighting products, not to mention hardware, mirrors and sundry items for the home.

Recessed, or "can" lights are used in most modern kitchens to provide unobtrusive ambient light. They did not exist before 1945 and are not at all suitable for an Arts & Crafts kitchen. The usual, and probably the best, choice is pendant lamps strung from the ceiling on chains or posts. They can be ganged together to provide as much light as is needed in a particular area and can be concentrated over work areas such as islands to provide needed task lighting.

For task lighting, the usual method is to hang lights on the bottoms of upper cabinets to illuminate the counter­top below. The lamps necessary to produce this lighting did not exist during the Arts & Crafts period, so whatever we use should be hidden.

The best choice are strips of low voltage LED lamps. Not only are these the least expensive lamps to operate but they are so small they can be easily hidden beneath the upper cabinet, invisible to all except those specifically looking for them. They are so cheap to operate that it is feasible to leave them on as night lights for the benefit of midnight snack seakers.

Their drawback is that despite a precipitous decline in the price of LED lamps, they are still relative expensive — about four times the cost of any other option. However, they pay for themselves is about five years through energy savings.

How to Clean a Cast Iron Sink

Cleaning Products

Cleaning Process

An option with lower initial cost are small T-5 fluorescent undercabinet lamps. Make sure, however, that you get the instant-on version. It,s a little more expensive but not nearly as annoying as the standard lamps that take a few seconds to actually illuminate after a lot of flickering and false starts.

Kitchen Sinks and Faucets

Hundreds of decisions go into renovating a vintage kitchen. The hardest to make concern the refrigerator, range and sink and the length of the decision process seems to be directly related to the number of options available. For sinks, the options are nearly unlimited: Single bowl, double bowl (even triple bowl), stainless steel, enamel-on-iron, composite, stone, copper, zinc, wall-mount, pedestal, drop-in, undermount, tile-in or integrated.

Arts & Crafts Kitchen Sinks

Fortunately in reproducing an Arts & Crafts kitchen the options are drastically curtailed. Most modern sink materials either did not exist or were not used for sinks during the Arts & Crafts period. These include stainless steel and all composite materials, which eliminates most of the sinks in today's marketplace.

During the Arts & Crafts period ena­mel-on-iron or "cast iron" sinks were king. Stone was used in the early part of the period but rarely, and we have occasionally found a copper or zinc sink, usually a holdover from the Victorian era.

Enamel-On-Iron (Cast Iron)

Vitreous enamel was the miracle material of the Arts & Crafts period used to coat the iron used to make sinks and bathtubs. Cast iron did not leak and, coated with a thick layer of enamel, rarely rusted, were very hard to damage, and were virtually maintenance free. Kohler still makes cast iron sinks guaranteed not to chip for the life of the sink.

They are the lowest maintenance of all of the available sink options. Stainless steel shows fingerprints, copper tarnishes, zinc blackens, composites stain and stone needs to be sealed regularly — vitreous cast iron needs a wipe with a wet cloth or sponge to keep its luster almost forever.

What ruins cast iron sinks is the over-vigorous cleaning. Scouring powder wears away the enamel and leaves microscopic scratches to collect dirt and grime, giving the sink the characteristic yellowish stains of old enamel sinks. If you are put off by your grandmother's old yellowed Kohler or American Standard cast-iron sink, remember, she did not know to avoid scouring powder, and probably used it every single day for fifty years.

An old, worn sink can often be resurrected as long as it is not actually rusting. We use a process similar to buffing paint on vintage automobiles with a polishing compound (not the waxy kind) to remove scratches and all signs of yellowing until we reach pristine enamel. The enamel on these old sinks was so thick that they can actually be buffed out several times.

Most early sinks were mounted to the wall and stabilized with legs. Many had integrated drain boards and were up to 72" wide. After 1920 as built-in cabinets became more universal, sinks were set into the cabinet — so-called drop-in or self-rimming sinks.

Tile-In Sinks

The disadvantage of drop-in sinks is that they are higher than the countertop making it difficult to sweep debris directly into the sink without having to maneuver over the sink edge. Undermount sinks solved the problem but undermount sinks did not exist at the time. Tile-in sinks did, however. These are sinks designed to merge with the ceramic tile commonly used as countertop surfaces during the Arts & Crafts period so that the transition between tile and sink is smooth and level.

Tile-in sinks are getting rare. Kohler now makes just three models of the dozens it used to make, and in just one color, white, of the dozens of colors it used to offer. So far as we know, Kohler is the last of the U.S. sink companies to make tile-in models.

Zinc Sinks

Zinc was a popular material for sinks during the late Victorian era, and carried over into the Arts & Crafts period (and even into modern times as a material for utility and laundry sinks before plastic became the utility sink of choice). Modern sinks made of zinc are still available from suppliers such as Rustica House, some of which are suitable for an Arts & Crafts kitchen.

Zinc is a soft, easily worked metal that solders well and can be bent to almost any shape, making it an ideal material for sinks and countertops. It has an attractive gray patina and can be polished to a fair shine but requires a lot of maintenance to retain the shine. Zinc loves to oxidize. It spends all of its time trying to return to its natural, stable state, zinc oxide, a dark gray or even black material that zinc owners love or learn to love over time. The disadvantage of the oxide is that is rubs off and leaves dark marks on dishes, towels and elbows.

As a sink material grew less and less popular as vitreous cast iron sinks became less expensive and more common. They were rarely seen in new housing after 1920 and had all but disappeared by 1940.

Copper Sinks

Copper was, and still is, the upscale material for custom sinks. Copper was abundant and easy to work, so it was a popular material among period artisans for decorative ornamentation of all kinds including hand-hammered lamps, candlesticks, decorative tile, and sconces. It was also a preferred material for architectural use in downspouts, half-round gutters, and flashing. In kitchens it was used primarily to make sinks and to a much lesser extent, faucets.

Copper sinks are still available including pre-made sinks from China and India. The quality of these sinks varies widely, however, and include sinks that leak and do not drain properly, so buying a copper sink over the internet can be a risky proposition. The wise buyher makes sure that the seller is reputable and has a return policy that permits no-risk returns of defective products.

More consistent quality is available from North American-based craftsmen who will make custom sinks to order. Our preferred provider is Rachiele™ Custom Sinks. Dino Rachiele is a careful craftsman that pays attention to detail.

Copper oxidizes to a brown or brownish-green color. If that's your preferred aesthetic, then the material is low maintenance. Just a wipe once in a while with a damp sponge or cloth is all the maintenance it needs. If bright, shiny copper is your choice, then the material is high maintenance. Keeping it bright and shiny will be a never-ending daily chore.

Kitchen Faucets

Arts & Crafts kitchen faucets were very utilitarian. Running water in the kitchen was relatively new, a very recent innovation. Even at the end of the Arts & Crafts period, not every household had it and those that did were glad to have it, giving little thought to the style of the faucet that provided it.

Many of he major faucets companies that are household names today did not exist during the Arts & Crafts period. Delta Faucet was not founded until 1954, and Moen in 1956. Kohler (1873), American Standard (1875), Crane Plumbing (1906), and Price Pfister (now just Pfister - 1910) made most faucets sold in North America. Of these only Kohler still manufactures in the U.S. Lesser know brands included Apex, Pub-co and Republic, none of which are still in business.

Faucets were usually wall-mounted — not actually into the wall but into the backsplash integrated into most period sinks. All were two handle faucets, left for hot, right for cold. The single handle faucet was invented by Al Moen in the late 1930s but the World War then got in the way. Brass became a strategic material, reserved for the war effort so the new Moen faucet did not go into production until 1947.

Chrome

The two important technical innovations in kitchen faucets during the period were chrome as a faucet finish and the side spray. Chrome was a vast improvement over the former finish, nickel. Nickel was soft and fairly easily worn away, exposing the bare brass underneath. Chrome was much harder and could take withstand longer use and even abuse without showing signs of age. Native brass faucets were also sold. Essentially these were faucets in which the corrosion-prone brass was not given a protective finish. These required a lot of care to retain their bright and shiny appearance.
Certain of today's popular finishes did not exist. Oil rubbed bronze (neither oiled nor rubbed) is an example. No such finish existed in the first half of the 20the century. In fact, it is largely a creature of the 1990s, introduced to replace antique broze which had fallen our of favor. Nickle persisted as a faucet finish even through rapidly being replaced by chrome. Painted finishes, likewise, did not exist. Anything that looks like a painted finish is probably ceramic. Kohler made a few ceramic faucts a few years ago, and we think they go back to the 1930s.

Today's nickel is marginally harder than the plating of the 1930s and more durable but still not up to chrome. (Physical Vapor Deposition) nickel is another matter. It is not actually nickel but some much harder metal such as zirconium treated to look like nickel. PVD finishes are estimated to be 20 times harder than chrome.

Side Spray

The second innovation in kitchen faucets was the side spray. No one appears to know exactly when this useful feature was invented but some Kohler and American Standard sinks started showing an extra mounting hole for a side spray about 1935. By 1945 it was nearly univdersal in new kitchens.

Early sprays were primitive, simply spraying water when a lever was depressed. They stayed primative until the 1970s when Al Moen developed a apray that could switch from spray to stream and back again at the flick of a switch. It made filling big pots a snap.

Design Evolution

As the era progressed, a little design finesse began creeping into bathroom faucets but it never seemed to reach the kitchen. Even after the World War, the post-war housing boom saw new washerless faucet technology from the likes of Moen and later Delta that made single handle faucets possible but pretty much the same old style.

It was not until designer European fau­cets began making serious inroads in the U.S. market in the 1980s that American companies started giving thought to more stylish design, and even then it took a decade or more for the realization to take hold.

Today there are scads of well-de­signed, stylish fau­cets in styles suitable for Arts & Crafts period kitchens. While these are often not truly authentic, they are period-compatible and can be convincingly used in a reproduction kitchen.

We particularly like Art Deco designs. They actually are somewhat authentic, appearing in the very last years of the Arts & Crafts era as it blended into mid-century modern. (Read about post-war retro mid-century architecture, interiors, kitchens and baths at Post-war Housing Styles Cape Cod, Colonial, and Ranch.)

Art Nouveau designs also work well. Art Nouveau was the French version of Arts & Crafts which flourished roughly during the same period. Otherwise, there is certainly nothing wrong with a plain-as an-old-shoe two-handle low-arc bright chrome faucet with side spray just like the one in your grandmother's kitchen. It's authentic, functional, durable, essy to maintain, and inexpensive — less than $70 from several different suppliers. Possibly the best faucet bargain around.

For as much as you reasonably will ever need to know about faucets, see Faucet Basics. For reviews and ratings of over 200 faucet companies, go to Faucet Reviews and Ratings.

Appliances

The toughest part of reproducing an Arts & Crafts kit­chen are the appliances. Electric appliances from the period are available here and there, and many in working order. But, as a rule, they just don't work as well as modern electric appliances and are not suited to modern kitchens for safety as well as practical reasons.

Nor are they very efficient. In fact, a small five cubic foot GE Monitor refrigerator is so inefficient that it takes more electricity to operate than a modern 36" side-by-side refrigerator with four times the capacity (and an ice maker).

Since, in the end, a kit­chen is a workroom where the tasks of preparing and serving food are done, we don't want any notions of rigid authenticity to interfere with the process.

So, how to incorporate modern appliances into an Arts & Crafts kit­chen without destroying the historic look and feel. There are ways, which boil down to four basic approaches.

Original Period Appliances

The first is using an actual period appliance.

While most period appliances are unsuited to a modern kit­chen, some pre-war appliances can be used in their original form or modernized with new innards to keep the look of the period with the convenience of modern functionality.

Gas ranges fit nicely into this category. The technology of using natural gas to produce heat has not changed much in 100 years. All it takes is a supply of gas, and a burner.

GE Invented the Dishwasher, Right?

Sorry, wrong. The first modern Dish Washing Machine that used water pressure rather than scribbers to clean dishes was invented by Josephine Cochran, the daughter and granddaughter of mechanical engineers, and issued patent 355,139 in 1886.

Her first customers were institutional kit­chens but by 1911 she was selling a smaller, domestic version as the Crescent Electric Dish Washer.

In 1926 her company was purchased by Hobart which produced the dishwashers under the Kitchen Aid brand until being acquired in turn by Whirlpool in 1986.

Cochran was inducted into the National Inventors Hall of Fame in 2006, a recognition about 100 years overdue.

The modern burner is not very different from the burners used 100 years ago. The big improvement is that modern burners are sealed so that any spills stay on top of the stove instead of migrating inside.

The other significant change is the safety and reliability of ignition. Today we use electric ignition. Our grandparents used kit­chen mat­ches or a pilot light — not nearly as safe or convenient. However, it is not a difficult process to add modern electric ignition and sealed burners to a period stove.

It's a little more complicated to modify an old range to use electricity but again it is possible. We much prefer, however, to stick with gas. Gas cooks better (which is why almost all professional chef stoves are gas) and is more authentic to the period.

Reproduction Appliances

The second alternative is to find a modern appliance that looks like it could have been around in the 1920s and 30s. There are such things but they're not made by GE, LG or Amana; or, in fact, any other appliance maker you have ever heard of.

They are made by small companies like Big Chill, Smeg, Heart­land, Unique Appliances (Re­tro Col­lec­tion), and El­mira Stove Works.

Some reproductions are totally convincing. Others less so.

Modern ranges and wall ovens with 1920s styling are virtually indistinguishable from the original and fit right into an Arts & Crafts kit­chen. The differences are apparent only when the appliance is in use and the modern electronic controls and ventilation systems are exposed.

Other appliances like dishwasher panels and microwaves are less successful. Nothing makes a microwave look like it belongs in an Arts & Crafts kit­chen. The best solution for a microwave is to hide it in a cabinet.

Similarly, a retro dishwasher panel looks like… Well, we're not really sure what it looks like but it does not look like it should be there. We suggest using reproductions for ranges and ovens and leaving dishwashers and microwaves to be handled another way.

Hiding, Disguising, and Relocating Appliances

Which brings us to our third approach: hiding.

Hiding works well for dishwashers. A panel that looks like the rest of the cabinet doors can be made that is very good at concealing the fact that the "cabinet" is actually a modern dishwasher. Generally, dishwashers must be designed to accommodate wood panels for this approach to work well. Hiding also works for microwaves, which can be built into a cabinet and concealed behind a cabinet door when not in use.

Refrigerators are more difficult to hide. But, there are options.

Using Modern Appliances

The final appliance option is to simply use modern appliances. Ok, it's not strictly to period but, so what?

A home kit­chen is not a museum. It needs first and foremost to be fully functional. Style comes in at a distant second. If it takes modern appliances to get to full functionality on your remodeling budget, so be it. If any of your family, friends or neighbors are offended by your lack of pure historic authenticity, ban them from your kit­chen. There, problem solved — and very inexpensively.

One big advantage of staying with strictly modern appliances is that they are a lot cheaper. Many of the retro-look appliances available on the market cost two or even Many of the retro-look appliances available on the market cost two or even three times the price of a non-retro-look equivalent appliance. So, sacrificing a little authenticity for a leaner budget is, for many homeowners, a sterling idea.

Small Appliances

Small appliances can be more easily integrated into your heritage Arts & Crafts kit­chen, simply because there are scads of modern appliances designed to look vintage. The iconic Sunbeam Toastmaster automatic toaster has been reproduced in more or less authentic styling by a number of different companies, as has the old Sunbeam MixMaster.

Some small appliances have not changed in appearance in 100 years, and the modern version is still right at home in an Arts & Crafts kit­chen. The most notable of these is probably the iconic Kitchen Aid Stand Mixer. It has looked almost exactly the same since 1919 and fits right into any kit­chen of almost any period.

Coffeemakers are a little bit of a problem. These things seem to be almost uniformly starkly modern, stainless and glass contraptions. But, the one thing you don't want to do is buy a percolator, vintage or otherwise. These things make a truly terrible coffee.

Kenwood has gotten into the business of making retro-look appliances, and one of its more successful efforts is its coffeemakers and espresso machines.

The Kenwood Mix line of retro appliances includes a coffeemaker that looks like what a coffeemaker could have looked like if there had been automatic coffeemakers 80 years ago. For espresso and cappuccino fans, there is the Kenwood Cafe Retro espresso machine. Both in stainless and ten retro colors.

Most Requested Feature

We have never seen an original Arts & Crafts kit­chen cabinet with a glass panel door. But, glass panels were common in built-in dining room breakfronts.
Kitchen designers have simply adopted the style of these glass doors and Crafts­man windows to kit­chen cabinets. Glass is common in reproduction Arts & Crafts kitchens, particularly stained or art glass in Arts & Crafts and Art Deco designs.

It may not be original but it is authentic, and the most requested kit­chen feature of Arts & Crafts kit­chen renovations.

Another option would be to use plain glass and put a little low-voltage light inside the cabinets to create a built-in display case for grandma's Irish china.

The Arts & Crafts Bath

In the early part of the Arts & Crafts era, the bath was merely a continuation of the Vic­tor­ian bathroom with its stand-alone claw-foot tub and wall-mounted lavatory sink. This was often a very monochromatic room — with a subway tile wainscot, white floor tile and. . . . (Continues)

Footnotes:
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  1. List of companies that restore and convert old appliances:
    Antique Appliances Clayton, GA (706) 782-3132
    Antique Gas Stoves Los Angeles, CA (909) 484-2222
    Antique Stove Heaven Los Angeles, CA (323) 298-5581
    Antique Stove Hospital Little Compton, RI (401) 635-4896
    Antique Stove Restoration of Dallas Dallas, TX (972) 525-0537
    Antique Stoves Tekonsha, MI (517) 767-3606
    Apple Stoves Oakland, CA (510) 420-6096
    Belgrove Appliance Yonkers, NY (914) 664-5231
    Buckeye Appliance Stockton, CA (209) 464-9643
    Bryant Stove & Music Barnstable, MA (508) 362-9913
    Canadian Antique Stoves Kaslo, BC (250) 353-9648
    Carolinas Antique Appliances Los Angeles, CA (323) 780-2810
    Dream Stoves Valley Springs, CA (209) 754-4100
    Erickson's Antique Stoves Littleton, MA (978) 857-8014
    Good Time Stove Co. Goshen, MA (413) 268-3677
    Homestead Stoves Centralia, WA (360) 736-5188
    Mill Creek Antiques Paxico, KS (785) 636-5520
    RMR Company San Diego, CA (619) 231-2808
    Sarah's Antique Stoves Bradford, VT (802) 922-6676
    Savon Appliance Refinishing Burbank, CA (818) 843-484
    Vintage Appliances & Restoration Tucson, AZ (520) 326-6849
    Weiss Antique Stoves Laramie, WY (307) 760-4969

    Do you know a restorer that should be added to this directory? Get in touch.

Rev. 03/12/20